Category

# Physics

441 items

### Angular Diameter

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The angular diameter or apparent size is an angular measurement describing how large a sphere or circle appears from a given point of view.

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### Area Moment of Inertia of an Annulus about a Centroidal Axis

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The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area that reflects how its points are distributed with regard to ...

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### Cyclotron Frequency

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A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outward from the center along a spiral path. The particles are held to a spiral trajectory by a static magnetic field and accelerated...

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### Damped Driven Pendulum Harmonic Oscillator

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A pendulum harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A damped driven pendulum harmonic oscillator experiences a...

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### Damped Pendulum Harmonic Oscillator

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A pendulum harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A damped pendulum harmonic oscillator experiences a fricti...

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### Damped Driven Spring Harmonic Oscillator

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A spring harmonic oscillator is a spring that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A damped driven spring harmonic oscillator experiences a fri...

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### Damped Driven Torsion Harmonic Oscillator

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A torsion harmonic oscillator is a twisting system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A damped driven torsion harmonic oscillator experi...

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### Damped Driven Harmonic Oscillator

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A harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, proportional to the displacement. A damped driven harmonic oscillator experiences a frictional force...

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### Damped Spring Harmonic Oscillator

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A spring harmonic oscillator is a spring that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A damped spring harmonic oscillator experiences a frictional...

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### Diesel Cycle

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The Diesel cycle is a combustion process of a reciprocating internal combustion engine. In it, fuel is ignited by heat generated during the compression of air in the combustion chamber, into which fuel is then injected.

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### Differential Amplifier

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A differential amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that amplifies the difference between two input voltages, but suppresses any voltage common to the two inputs.

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### Doppler Redshift

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Doppler redshift is caused by movement of a source away from the observer. The term applies to any increase in wavelength and decrease in frequency caused by relative motion, even outside the visible spectrum.

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### Doppler Shift Frequency Reduction Factor

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The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source.

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### Doppler Blueshift

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Doppler blueshift is caused by movement of a source toward the observer. The term applies to any decrease in wavelength and increase in frequency caused by relative motion, even outside the visible spectrum.

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### Driven Spring Harmonic Oscillator

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A spring harmonic oscillator is a spring that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A driven spring harmonic oscillator experiences an external ...

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### Driven Torsion Harmonic Oscillator

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A torsion harmonic oscillator is a twisting system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A driven torsion harmonic oscillator experiences a...

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### Equations of Motion for a Round Object on an Inclined Plane

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The equations of motion for a round object on an inclined plane are the equations that describe the behavior of the object in terms of its motion as a function of time. An inclined plane is a flat supporting surface t...

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### Equations of Motion for a Round Object on an Inclined Plane Using Slope

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The equations of motion for a round object on an inclined plane are the equations that describe the behavior of the object in terms of its motion as a function of time. An inclined plane is a flat supporting surface t...

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### Elastic Collision

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An elastic collision is an encounter between two bodies in which the total kinetic energy of the two bodies after the encounter is equal to their total kinetic energy before the encounter. Perfectly elastic collisions...

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### Earth Satellite Period in a Circular Orbit

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A circular orbit is the orbit at a fixed distance around any point by an object rotating around a fixed axis. The orbital period is the time it takes the object to revolve around the point, in this case the planet Earth.

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### Equation of Circular Motion under Constant Acceleration

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The equation of circular motion describes an object moving under constant angular acceleration in a circular as a function of time.

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### Gravitational Acceleration

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Gravitational acceleration is the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation.

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### Moment of Inertia of a Thin Disk

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The mass moment of inertia measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about a particular axis, and is the rotational analog to mass. For a disk of infinitesimal thickness, the moments of in...

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### Moment of Inertia of a Cuboid

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The mass moment of inertia measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about a particular axis, and is the rotational analog to mass. For a uniform solid cuboid, the moment of inertia is tak...

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### Ohm's Law

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The current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the voltage across the two points. It is inversely proportional to the resistance across those two points.

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### Adiabatic Process Equations for an Ideal Gas

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An adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings. Energy is transferred only as work.

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### Angular Velocity under Constant Angular Acceleration

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The angular velocity of a body is the rate of change of its angular displacement with respect to time.

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### Angular Velocity by Initial and Final Values

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The angular velocity of a rotating body is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement.

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### Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body

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Angular momentum is the rotational analog of linear momentum. For a rigid body, it equals the cross-product of the particle's position vector (relative to some origin) and its momentum vector.

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### Archimedes's Principle

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Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

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### Area Moment of Inertia of a Disk about a Centroidal Axis

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The second moment of area, also known as the moment of inertia of a plane area, area moment of inertia or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area that reflects how its points are distributed with rega...

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### Area Moment of Inertia of a Quarter Disk about a Centroidal Axis

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The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of a plane area, area moment of inertia or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area that reflects how its points are distributed with regard t...

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### Area Moment of Inertia of a Regular Hexagon about a Centroidal Axis

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The second moment of area, also known as the moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area that reflects how its points are distributed with regard...

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### Area Moment of Inertia of a Filled Rectangle about a Centroidal Axis

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The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of a plane area, area moment of inertia or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area that reflects how its points are distributed with regard t...

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### Area Moment of Inertia of a Filled Triangle about a Centroidal Axis

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The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area that reflects how its points are distributed with regard to ...

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### Area Moment of Inertia of a Filled Trapezoid about a Centroidal Axis

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The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area that reflects how its points are distributed with regard to ...

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### Area Moment of Inertia of a Half-Disk about a Centroidal Axis

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The second moment of area, also known as the moment of inertia of a plane area, area moment of inertia or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area that reflects how its points are distributed with rega...

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### Area Moment of Inertia of a Regular Pentagon about a Centroidal Axis

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### Atkinson Cycle

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The Atkinson-cycle engine is a type of internal combustion engine invented by James Atkinson in 1882. The Atkinson cycle is designed to provide efficiency at the expense of power density, or total power extracted per ...

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### Average Speed by Displacement

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The speed of an object is the rate of change of its position.

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### Average Angular Velocity by Displacement

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The angular velocity of a rotating body is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement.

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### Avogadro's Law

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Avogadro's law states that equal volumes of all gases, at the same temperature and pressure, have the same number of molecules. For a given mass of an ideal gas, the volume and amount (moles) of the gas are directly p...

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### Axial Member Deformation

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Axial member deformation is the deformation of the support due to a load along the axis of support.

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### Coulomb's Law

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The magnitude of the electrostatic force of attraction between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the magnitudes of charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between th...

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### Bernoulli's Energy Equation

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Bernoulli's energy equation derives from Bernoulli's principle, which states that an increase in the speed of a fluid across a surface will result in a decrease of the force exerted (pressure) on that surface, or a de...

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### Barometric Formula for Pressure

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The barometric formula (also called the exponential atmosphere or isothermal atmosphere) is a formula used to model how the pressure of the air changes with altitude.

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### Barometric Formula for Density

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The barometric formula (also called the exponential atmosphere or isothermal atmosphere) is a formula used to model how the density of the air changes with altitude.

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### Beer–Lambert Law With Decadic Absorbance

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The Beer–Lambert law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is traveling.

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### Beer–Lambert Law with Napierian Absorbance

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The Beer–Lambert law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is traveling.

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### Bell Coleman Cycle

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The Bell Coleman cycle is a Brayton cycle driven in reverse, via network input, with air as the working fluid. Also called a gas refrigeration cycle, its purpose is to move heat, rather than produce work.

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### Bethe Formula

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The Bethe formula describes the mean energy loss per distance traveled of swift-charged particles (protons, alpha particles, atomic ions) traversing matter (or, alternatively, the stopping power of the material).

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### Blackbody Luminosity of a Sphere

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The blackbody luminosity for a sphere is the total amount of energy emitted by a sphere with uniform temperature in thermal equalibrium with its surroundings.

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### Black Hole Event Horizon Area with Angular Momentum

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An event horizon is a boundary in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.

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### Blasius Skin Friction

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A Blasius boundary layer describes the steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer that forms on a semi-infinite plate, which is held parallel to a constant unidirectional flow. Skin friction is friction between the...

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### Blasius Boundary Layer Thickness

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A Blasius boundary layer describes the steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer that forms on a semi-infinite plate, which is held parallel to a constant unidirectional flow.

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### Blasius Displacement Thickness

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A Blasius boundary layer describes the steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer that forms on a semi-infinite plate, which is held parallel to a constant unidirectional flow.

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### Bose–Einstein Condensation Temperature for Noninteracting Bosons Using Pressure

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The Bose–Einstein condensation temperature is the temperature at which a free Bose gas transitions to a Bose–Einstein condensate. Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at w...

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### Bose–Einstein Distribution for Non-interacting Bosons

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The BoseEinstein distribution describes the occupancy of an energy state within a BoseEinstein condensate.

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### Bose–Einstein Condensation Temperature for Noninteracting Bosons Using Volume

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The Bose–Einstein condensation temperature is the temperature at which a free Bose gas transitions to a Bose–Einstein condensate. Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at w...

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### Bose–Einstein Condensation Temperature for Noninteracting Bosons Using Number Density

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The Bose–Einstein condensation temperature is the temperature at which a free Bose gas transitions to a Bose–Einstein condensate. Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at w...

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### Boyle's Law

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The absolute pressure exerted by a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the volume it occupies if the temperature and amount of gas remain unchanged within a closed system.

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### Bragg's Law

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Bragg's law specifies which angles possess coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice.

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### Braking Torque

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The braking torque is the torque required to maintain a constant motor speed and power.

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### Brayton Cycle

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The Brayton cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the workings of a constant-pressure heat engine.

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### Brewster's Angle

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Brewster's angle is an angle of incidence at which light with a particular polarization is perfectly transmitted through a transparent dielectric surface, with no reflection.

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### Capillary Action

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Capillary action is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.

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### Cable Capacitance

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Cable capacitance refers to the capacitance of a single core cable.

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### Capacitance between Two Parallel Cylinders

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A capacitor is a passive, two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. In the case of two parallel cylinders, the capacitance builds up between two parallel cylinders of the sa...

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### Capacitance between Two Concentric Spheres

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A capacitor is a passive, two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. In the case of two concentric spheres, the capacitance builds up between the inner surface of the outer s...

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### Capacitor Energy Using Capacitance and Voltage

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The energy stored in a capacitor depends on the charge and voltage difference across the capacitor.

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### Capacitor Energy Using Charge and Voltage

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The energy stored in a capacitor depends on the charge and voltage difference across the capacitor.

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### Capacitor Reactance Formula

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Capacitor reactance is the opposition of a capacitor to a change in current or voltage.

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### Capacitor Energy Using Capacitance and Charge

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The energy stored in a capacitor depends on the charge and voltage difference across the capacitor.

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### Capacitance

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Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electric charge, and equals the charge required to cause unit potential difference in a conductor.

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### Capacitance of Parallel Plates

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A capacitor is a passive, two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. In a parallel plate capacitor, the capacitance builds up between two closely spaced parallel plates.

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### Carnot Cycle for a Refrigerator

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The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle conducted on an ideal gas consisting of an isothermal expansion, an isentropic expansion and an isothermal compression, concluding with an isentropic compression.

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### Carnot Cycle for a Heat Engine

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The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle conducted on an ideal gas consisting of an isothermal expansion, an isentropic expansion and an isothermal compression, concluding with an isentropic compression.

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### Carnot Cycle for a Heat Pump

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The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle conducted on an ideal gas consisting of an isothermal expansion, an isentropic expansion and an isothermal compression, concluding with an isentropic compression.

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### Casimir Effect

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The Casimir effect describes the attractive force between two uncharged, perfectly conducting plates arising from quantum fluctuation effects.

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### Centripetal Acceleration Using Angular Velocity

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Centripetal acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time as it moves in a circular path.

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### Centripetal Acceleration Using Rotation Speed

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Centripetal acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time as it moves in a circular path.

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### Centripetal Force Using Angular Velocity

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A centripetal force is a force that makes a body follow a curved path. Its direction is always orthogonal to the motion of the body and toward the fixed point of the instantaneous center of curvature of the path.

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### Centripetal Force Using Rotation Speed

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A centripetal force is a force that makes a body follow a curved path. Its direction is always orthogonal to the motion of the body and toward the fixed point of the instantaneous center of curvature of the path.

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### Charles's Law

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Charles's law states that when the pressure on a sample of a dry gas is held constant, the Kelvin temperature and the volume will be directly related.

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### Cherenkov Radiation

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Cherenkov radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.

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### Circular Orbit Velocity

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The circular orbit velocity describes the speed of an object in a stable orbit at a fixed distance around another body.

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### Circular Orbit Radius of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

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A charged particle moving in a magnetic field will be pushed into a circular path by the interaction of the charge and the magnetic field. The radius of that path can be calculated from the properties of the charge an...

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### Circular Current Loop

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A circular current loop is a current constrained along a circular path by an infinitely thin wire.

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### Colebrook–White Equation for Darcy–Weisbach Friction Factor

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The Colebrook–White equation expresses the Darcy friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number and pipe relative roughness, fitting the data of experimental studies of turbulent flow in smooth and rough pipes.

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### Colebrook–White Equation for Pipe Roughness

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The Colebrook–White equation expresses the Darcy friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number and pipe relative roughness, fitting the data of experimental studies of turbulent flow in smooth and rough pipes.

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### Combined Gas Law

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The combined gas law states that the ratio between the pressure-volume product and the temperature of a system remains constant.

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### Compton Wavelength

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The Compton wavelength of a particle is equal to the wavelength of a photon whose energy is the same as the mass of the particle.

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### Compton Shift

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Compton scattering is the inelastic scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron. It results in a decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of the photon, called the Compton effect. Part of the ...

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### Concave Mirror-Image Equations

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A curved mirror is a mirror with a curved reflecting surface. A concave mirror bulges inward.

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### Constant Translational Acceleration in a Straight Line

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Constant translational acceleration in a straight line describes the equation of motion of an object moving under constant acceleration along a straight line as a function of time.

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### Constructive Thin-Film Interference

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Thin-film interference is a natural phenomenon in which light waves reflected by the upper and lower boundaries of a thin film interfere with one another, either enhancing or reducing the reflected light. When the thi...

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### Convex Mirror-Image Equations

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A curved mirror is a mirror with a curved reflecting surface. A convex mirror bulges outward.

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### Coriolis Effect

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The Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame. In a reference frame with clockwise rotation, the force acts to the left of the motion of the obj...

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### Electric Field of Solid Charged Sphere

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The electric field of a solid charged sphere describes a vector field that associates to each point in space the Coulomb force that would be experienced per unit of electric charge, by an infinitesimal test charge at ...

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### Electric Field of Hollow Charged Sphere

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The electric field of a hollow charged sphere describes a vector field that associates to each point in space the Coulomb force that would be experienced per unit of electric charge, by an infinitesimal test charge at...

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### Driven Pendulum Harmonic Oscillator

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A pendulum harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A driven pendulum harmonic oscillator experiences an exter...

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### Damped Torsion Harmonic Oscillator

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A torsion harmonic oscillator is a twisting system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A damped torsion harmonic oscillator experiences a...

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### Damped Harmonic Oscillator

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A harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A damped harmonic oscillator experiences a frictional force (dampin...

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### Darcy's Law Using Hydraulic Gradient

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Darcy's law is an equation that describes the flow of a fluid through a porous medium.

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### Darcy's Law Using Pressure Difference

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Darcy's law is an equation that describes the flow of a fluid through a porous medium.

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### De Broglie Angular Frequency by Kinetic Energy

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The de Broglie angular frequency is the angular frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics.

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### De Broglie Frequency by Momentum

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The de Broglie frequency is the frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics.

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### De Broglie Wavelength by Kinetic Energy

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The de Broglie wavelength is the wavelength associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics.

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### De Broglie Wavelength by Velocity

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The de Broglie wavelength is the wavelength associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics.

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### De Broglie Frequency by Velocity

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The de Broglie frequency is the frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics.

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### De Broglie Wavelength by Momentum

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The de Broglie wavelength is the wavelength associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics.

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### De Broglie Frequency by Kinetic Energy

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The de Broglie frequency is the frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics.

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### De Broglie Angular Frequency by Momentum

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The de Broglie angular frequency is the angular frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics.

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### De Broglie Angular Frequency by Velocity

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The de Broglie angular frequency is the angular frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics.

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### Decibel-to-Ratio Conversion

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The decibel is a logarithmic unit used to express the ratio of two values of a physical quantity.

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### De Laval Nozzle

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A de Laval nozzle is a tube that is pinched in the middle, making a carefully balanced, asymmetric hourglass shape. It is used to accelerate a hot, pressurized gas passing through it to a higher supersonic speed in th...

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### Destructive Thin-Film Interference

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Thin-film interference is a natural phenomenon in which light waves reflected by the upper and lower boundaries of a thin film interfere with one another, either enhancing or reducing the reflected light. When the thi...

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### Differential Bending of a Bimetallic Strip

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A bimetallic strip is used to convert a temperature change into mechanical displacement. The differential bending of a bimetallic strip describes the radius of curvature as a function of temperature and the length and...

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### Diffraction Grating with Incidence Angle

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A diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure, which splits and diffracts light into several beams traveling in different directions. The directions of these beams depend on the spacing of th...

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### Diffraction Intensity Ratio for Circular Aperture Diffraction

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The diffraction intensity ratio is the ratio between intensity at a given angle and the incident intensity of light passing through a circular aperture.

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### Diffraction Grating

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A diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure, which splits and diffracts light into several beams traveling in different directions. The directions of these beams depend on the spacing of th...

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### Doppler-Shifted Frequency

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The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source.

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### Drag Force on a Sphere for Stokes Flow

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Stokes flow is a type of fluid flow where advective inertial forces are small compared with viscous forces.

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### Driven Harmonic Oscillator

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A harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement. A driven harmonic oscillator experiences an external time-dependent...

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### Elastic Collision in Two Dimensions Using Incident Angle

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An elastic collision is an encounter between two bodies in which the total kinetic energy of the two bodies after the encounter is equal to their total kinetic energy before the encounter. Perfectly elastic collisions...

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### Elastic Surface Collision

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An elastic surface collision is an encounter between a particle and a surface in which the kinetic energy of the particle after the encounter is equal to the kinetic energy before the encounter. Perfectly elastic coll...

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### Elastic Collision in Two Dimensions Using Impact Parameter

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An elastic collision is an encounter between two bodies in which the total kinetic energy of the two bodies after the encounter is equal to their total kinetic energy before the encounter. Perfectly elastic collisions...

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### Electrical Energy

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Electrical energy is the energy newly derived from electric potential energy or kinetic energy.

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### Electric Resistivity Formula

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The electrical resistivity is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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### Electric Power Using Resistance and Current

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Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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### Electric Field of a Point Charge

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A point charge is an idealized model of a particle that has an electric charge. A point charge is an electric charge at a mathematical point with no dimensions.

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### Electric Power Using Resistance and Voltage

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Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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### Electric Power Using Voltage and Current

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Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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### Electromagnetic Skin Depth

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Skin depth is a property of the skin effect, the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to become distributed within a conductor such that the current density is largest near the surface of the conductor, an...

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### Elliptical Cylinder Volume

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An elliptical cylinder is a cylinder whose cross-section is an ellipse.

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### Elliptical Cylinder Mass

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An elliptical cylinder is a cylinder whose cross-section is an ellipse.

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### Energy Density of Magnetic Field

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A magnetic field is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials. Energy is needed to generate a magnetic field both to work against the electric field that a changing magnetic field creates and cha...

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### Engineering Strain

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Strain is a measure of deformation representing the displacement between particles in the body relative to a reference length.

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### Equation of Motion Using Final and Initial Position

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Equations of motion are equations that describe the behavior of a physical system in terms of its motion as a function of time.

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### Equation of Motion Using Angular Displacement

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Equations of motion are equations that describe the behavior of a physical system in terms of its motion as a function of time.

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### Equation of Motion Using Distance

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Equations of motion are equations that describe the behavior of a physical system in terms of its motion as a function of time.

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### Equation of Motion Using Final and Initial Angle

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### Equivalent Dose of Ionizing Radiation

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The equivalent dose is a dose quantity representing the stochastic health effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body. Ionizing radiation is radiation that carries enough energy to free electrons fro...

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### Ericsson Cycle

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The Ericsson cycle consists of an isothermal compression, an isobaric heat addition, an isothermal expansion and an isobaric heat removal.

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### Escape Velocity

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The escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.

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### Euler Critical Buckling Load

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Buckling is a mathematical instability that leads to a failure mode. The critical load is the point when the load on a column forces a bifurcation of the states of equilibrium: a purely compressed state (with no later...

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### Exponential Decay

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Exponential decay is the decrease in the amount of a substance at a rate proportional to its current value.

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### Fabry–Pérot Interferometer Using Finesse Coefficient

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This formula describes the transmission and reflection of light through a FabryPérot interferometer, or etalon, a transparent plate with two reflecting surfaces or two parallel, highly reflecting mirrors.

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### Fabry–Pérot Interferometer Using Plate Reflectance

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This formula describes the transmission and reflection of light through a FabryPérot interferometer, or etalon, a transparent plate with two reflecting surfaces or two parallel, highly reflecting mirrors.

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### Fanno Flow

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Fanno flow describes the adiabatic flow through a constant area duct where the effect of friction is considered.

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### Fermi–Dirac Distribution for Non-interacting Fermions

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The Fermi–Dirac distribution describes how particles are distributed over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.

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### Fermi Energy for Non-Interacting Fermions

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The Fermi energy is a concept in quantum mechanics usually referring to the energy difference between the highest and lowest occupied single-particle states in a quantum system of non-interacting fermions at absolute ...

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### First Law of Thermodynamics

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The first law of thermodynamics states that the change in the internal energy of a closed system is equal to the amount of heat supplied to the system minus the amount of work done by the system on its surroundings.

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### Flow Rate for Circular Pipes

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The volumetric flow rate is the volume of fluid that passes per unit time.

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### Flow Rate for Rectangular Pipes

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The volumetric flow rate is the volume of fluid that passes per unit time.

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### Force Components

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The force components describe how the force is distrubuted along the x and y axes of a surface.

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### Fourier's Law

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The law of heat conduction, also known as Fourier's law, states that the time rate of heat transfer through a material is proportional to the negative gradient in the temperature and to the area, at right angles to th...

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### Frequency Period Relation

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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. The period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency.

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### Fresnel Equations for P-Polarized Light

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The Fresnel equations calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients for light incident on an interface between media of differing refractive indices.

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### Fresnel Equations for S-Polarized Light

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The Fresnel equations calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients for light incident on an interface between media of differing refractive indices.

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### Gravitational Potential Energy

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Gravitational potential energy is the energy of an object due to gravity near the surface of a gravitating body.

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### Gravitational Time Dilation Using Gravity

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Gravitational time dilation is a form of time dilation, an actual difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers situated at varying distances from a gravitating mass. The higher the gravitatio...

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### Gas Particles' Velocity

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The thermal velocity or thermal speed is a typical velocity of the thermal motion of particles that make up a gas.

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### Gay–Lussac's Law

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The pressure of a gas of fixed mass and fixed volume is directly proportional to the gas's absolute temperature.

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### Graham's Law of Diffusion

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Graham's law of effusion (sometimes called Graham's law of diffusion) states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles.

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### Gravitational Redshift

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Gravitational redshift is the process by which electromagnetic radiation originating from a source that is in a gravitational field is reduced in frequency, or redshifted, when observed in a region at a higher gravita...

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### Gravitational Binding Energy of a Uniform Sphere

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The gravitational binding energy is the minimum energy that must be added to a system for the system to cease being in a gravitationally bound state.

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### Gravitational Acceleration for a Uniform Density Sphere

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Gravitational acceleration for a uniform density sphere is the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation.

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### Gravitational Time Dilation Using Mass

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Gravitational time dilation is a form of time dilation, an actual difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers situated at varying distances from a gravitating mass. The higher the gravitatio...

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### Gyromagnetic Ratio

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The gyromagnetic ratio (also sometimes known as the magnetogyric ratio in other disciplines) of a particle or system is the ratio of its magnetic moment to its angular momentum.

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### Hydraulic Conductivity

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Hydraulic conductivity is a property of vascular plants, soils and rocks that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability o...

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### Hydrostatic Pressure

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Hydrostatic pressure describes the pressure in a fluid at rest, where all frictional and inertial stresses vanish.

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### Hohmann Entrance Delta-V

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The Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane. The entrance delta-v is the change in velocity needed to enter the elliptical orbit.

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### Hazen–Williams Equation

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The Hazen–Williams equation is an empirical relationship that relates the flow of water in a pipe with the physical properties of the pipe and the pressure drop caused by friction.

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### Heat Capacity of an Ideal Gas by Amount

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Heat capacity or thermal capacity of an ideal gas is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added (or removed) to the resulting temperature change. An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of ...

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### Heat Capacity Ratio Using Specific Heat Capacities

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The heat capacity ratio is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity at constant volume.

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### Heat Capacity of an Ideal Gas by Number of Particles

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Heat capacity, or thermal capacity, of an ideal gas is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added (or removed) to the resulting temperature change. An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed o...

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### Heat Capacity Ratio Using Degrees of Freedom

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The heat capacity ratio is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity at constant volume.

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### Heat Capacity Ratio Using Heat Capacities

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The heat capacity ratio is the ratio of the heat capacity at constant pressure to heat capacity at constant volume.

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### Heat Engine Efficiency

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A heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.

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### Heat Transfer Coefficient

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The heat transfer coefficient is the proportionality constant between the heat flux and the thermodynamic driving force for the flow of heat.

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### Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle for Position and Momentum

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The uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle or Heisenberg's indeterminacy principle, is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with...

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### Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle for Energy and Time

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The uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle or Heisenberg's indeterminacy principle, is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with...

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### Helmholtz Resonator Frequency

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Helmholtz resonance is the phenomenon of air resonance in a cavity, such as when one blows across the top of an empty bottle.

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### Helmholtz Coil Field at Center

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A Helmholtz coil is a device for producing a region of nearly uniform magnetic field. It consists of two solenoid electromagnets on the same axis.

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### Helmholtz Coil Field at Arbitrary Distance

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A Helmholtz coil is a device for producing a region of nearly uniform magnetic field. It consists of two solenoid electromagnets on the same axis.

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### Hohmann Exit Delta-V

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The Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane. The exit delta-v is the change in velocity needed to exit the elliptical orbit.

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### Hohmann Angular Alignment

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The Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane. The angular alignment is the bearing needed to make the transfer.

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### Hohmann Transfer Time Using Semimajor Axis

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The Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane. The transfer time is the time it takes to complete the transit along the orbit.

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### Hohmann Total Delta-V

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The Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane. The total delta-v is the change in velocity needed to enter and exit the elliptical ...

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### Hohmann Transfer Time Using Radii

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The Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane. The transfer time is the time it takes to complete the transit along the orbit.

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### Hooke's Law for Potential Energy

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Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance is proportional to that distance.

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### Hooke's Law for Force

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Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance is proportional to that distance.

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### Ideal Gas Law Using Volume

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The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

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### Ideal Gas Law Using Density

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The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

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### Ideal Rocket Equation

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The ideal rocket equation describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a device that can apply acceleration to itself using thrust by expelling part of its mass with high velocity, and...

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### Ideal Transformer Current Equation

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A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field...

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### Ideal Transformer Voltage Equation

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A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. A varying current in one coil of the transformer produces a varying magnetic field...

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### Illuminance from Luminous Intensity

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Illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area.

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### Impulse for Constant Force

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Impulse is the integral of a force, F, over the time interval, t, for which it acts.

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### Inclined Span Catenary Sag

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The inclined span catenary sag describes the tensions and sagging curve, or catenary, of a cable connecting two points at different elevations.

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### Inductor Reactance Formula

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The inductive reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance.

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### Inductor-Stored Energy

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Inductor-stored energy is the energy stored in an inductor, a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in a magnetic field when electric current is flowing through it.

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### Infinitely Long Wire Magnetic Field

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A magnetic field is the magnetic effect of electric currents and magnetic materials for an infinitely long wire; it is created by the current flowing through the wire.

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### Instrumentation Amplifier

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An instrumentation amplifier is a type of differential amplifier that has been outfitted with input buffer amplifiers, which eliminate the need for input impedance matching, and thus make the amplifier particularly su...

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### Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas Using Particle Number

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The internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields...

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### Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas Using Molar Amount

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The internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to external force fields...

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### Intrinsic Permeability

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Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it. Intrinsic permeability is permea...

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### Inverting Amplifier

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An inverting amplifier is an operational amplifier where the output voltage changes in an opposite direction to the input voltage. An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled, high-gain electronic...

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### Isobaric Process

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An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant.

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### Isochoric Process

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An isochoric process is a thermodynamic process during which the volume of the closed system undergoing such a process remains constant.

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### Isothermal Process

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An isothermal process is a change of a system in which the temperature remains constant.

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### Johnson–Nyquist Noise Power Spectral Density

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The Johnson–Nyquist noise is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applie...

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### Johnson–Nyquist Noise Voltage

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The Johnson–Nyquist noise is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applie...

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### Joule's Law Using Electric Current

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Joule's first law states that the power of heating generated by an electrical conductor is proportional to the product of its resistance and the square of the current.

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### Joule's Law Using Electric Potential

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Joule's first law states that the power of heating generated by an electrical conductor is proportional to the product of its resistance and the square of the current.

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### Kepler's Third Law

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Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun. The third law states that the square of the orbital period of a planet is proportional to the cube of the se...

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### Kepler's First Law

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Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun. The first law states that the orbit of a planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the two foci.

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### Kinetic Friction Coefficient

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Kinetic friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces sliding against each other.

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### Kinetic Energy

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The kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity.

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### Mohr–Coulomb Failure Criterion

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The Mohr–Coulomb failure criterion represents the linear envelope that is obtained from a plot of the shear strength of a material versus the applied normal stress.

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### Larmor Frequency

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The Larmor precession is the precession of the magnetic moment of an object about an external magnetic field. The Larmor frequency is the frequency of that procession.

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### Larmor Power

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The Larmor formula is used to calculate the total power radiated by a nonrelativistic point charge as it accelerates or decelerates.

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### Lenoir Cycle

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The Lenoir cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle often used to model a pulsejet engine.

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### Lensmaker's Equation

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A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction. The lensmaker's equation describes the relationship between focal length and the radii of curvature of the lens.

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### Level Span Catenary Sag

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The level span catenary sag describes the tensions and sagging curve, or catenary, of a cable connecting two points at the same elevation.

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### Lorentz Force Using Particle Speed

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The Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.

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### Lorentz Factor

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The Lorentz factor is the factor by which time, length and relativistic mass change for an object while that object is moving.

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### Lorentz Force Using Current

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The Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.

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### Magnetic Field in an Infinitely Long Solenoid

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A solenoid is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix.

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### Manning Formula

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The Manning formula is an empirical formula estimating the average velocity of a liquid flowing in a conduit that does not completely enclose the liquid, such as open-channel flow.

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### Mass Density

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The mass density of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

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### Material Moduli Relationship

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The material moduli relationship describes the relationship between the Young's modulus and the torsion modulus.

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### Maximal Magnetic Induction in a Circular Coil

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Magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field.

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### Maximum Shear Stress in Spring

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The maximum shear stress in a spring is the maximum shear stress the spring can suffer before permanent deformation.

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### Maximum Spring Force

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The maximum spring force is the maximum force the spring can exert before permanent deformation.

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### Mean Free Path Using Pressure

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The mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule or a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modifies its direction, energy or other particle proper...

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### Mean Free Path Using Electron Density

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The mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule or a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modifies its direction, energy or other particle proper...

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### Mechanical Advantage of a Wedge by Angle

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Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, in this case a wedge.

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### Mechanical Advantage of a Lever

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Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, in this case a lever.

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### Mechanical Advantage of a Screw Using Lead

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Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, in this case a screw.

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### Mechanical Advantage of an Inclined Plane by Dimensions

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Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, in this case an inclined plane.

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### Mechanical Advantage of a Wheel and Axle

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Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool—in this case, a wheel and axle.

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### Mechanical Advantage of a Screw Using Lead Angle

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Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, in this case a screw.

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### Mechanical Advantage of an Inclined Plane by Slope

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Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, in this case an inclined plane.

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### Mechanical Stress for a Cylinder

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The mechanical stress for a cylinder expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles within the cylinder exert on each other.

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### Mechanical Advantage of a Pulley System

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Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool—in this case a pulley system.

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### Mechanical Stresses on a Thin-Walled Hoop

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A cylinder stress is a stress distribution with rotational symmetry, one that remains unchanged if the stressed object is rotated about some fixed axis.

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### Mechanical Stress

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Stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other.

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### Mechanical Advantage of a Wedge by Dimensions

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Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, in this case a wedge.

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### Minimum Power Required to Move Object

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The minimum power required to move an object depends on the work done and the time it takes to complete the movement.

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### Mohr's Circle Plane Normal Strain Y Direction

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Mohr's circle is a two-dimensional graphical representation of the transformation law for the Cauchy stress tensor. Normal strain is a description of deformation in terms of relative displacement of particles in the n...

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### Mohr's Circle Plane Normal Stress X Direction

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Mohr's circle is a two-dimensional graphical representation of the transformation law for the Cauchy stress tensor. Stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a cont...

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### Mohr's Circle Plane Normal Strain X Direction

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Mohr's circle is a two-dimensional graphical representation of the transformation law for the Cauchy stress tensor. Normal strain is a description of deformation in terms of relative displacement of particles in the n...

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### Mohr's Circle Plane Normal Stress Y Direction

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Mohr's circle is a two-dimensional graphical representation of the transformation law for the Cauchy stress tensor. Stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a cont...

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### Mohr's Circle Plane Shear Stress

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Mohr's circle is a two-dimensional graphical representation of the transformation law for the Cauchy stress tensor. Stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a cont...

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### Mohr's Circle Plane Shear Strain

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Mohr's circle is a two-dimensional graphical representation of the transformation law for the Cauchy stress tensor. Strain is a description of deformation in terms of relative displacement of particles in the body tha...

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### Momentum Using Kinetic Energy

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Momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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### Moment of Inertia of a Cylinder

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The mass moment of inertia measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about a particular axis, and is the rotational analog to mass. For a uniform solid cylinder, the moments of inertia are...

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### Moment of Inertia of a Triangular Plate

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The mass moment of inertia measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about a particular axis, and is the rotational analog to mass. For a uniform triangular plate, the moments of inertia a...

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### Moment of Inertia of a Sphere

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The mass moment of inertia measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about a particular axis, and is the rotational analogue to mass. For a uniform solid sphere, the moments of inertia are...

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### Moment of Inertia of an Elliptical Lamina

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The mass moment of inertia measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about a particular axis, and is the rotational analog to mass. For a uniform elliptical lamina, the moments of inertia ...

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### Moment of Inertia of a Thin Rod

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The parallel and perpendicular moments of inertia of a uniform, infinitely thin rod are taken through its center of mass. The rod is taken to be a one-dimensional wire. In the case of the perpendicular moment of inert...

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### Moment of Inertia of a Point Mass

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The mass moment of inertia measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about a particular axis, and is the rotational analog to mass.

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### Moment of Inertia of an Ellipsoid

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The mass moment of inertia measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about a particular axis, and is the rotational analog to mass. For a uniform solid ellipsoid, the moments of inertia ar...

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### Moment of Inertia of a Cone

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The mass moment of inertia measures the extent to which an object resists rotational acceleration about a particular axis, and is the rotational analog to mass. For a uniform solid cone, the moments of inertia are tak...

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### Momentum Using Velocity

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Momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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### Morse Equation

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The Morse equation relates osmotic pressure to solute concentration. Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure that needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of water across a semipermeable membrane.

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### Multiple-Slit Diffraction Using Wavenumber

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Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of geometrical shado...

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### Multiple-Slit Diffraction Using Wavelength

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Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit. It is defined as the bending of light around the corners of an obstacle or aperture into the region of the geometrical s...

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### Natural Broadening

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The uncertainty principle relates the lifetime of an excited state (due to spontaneous radiative decay or the Auger process) with the uncertainty of its energy. A short lifetime will have a large energy uncertainty an...

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### Newton's Second Law

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In an inertial reference frame, the vector sum of the forces on an object is equal to the mass of that object multiplied by the acceleration of the object.

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### Newton's Law of Cooling

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Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of heat loss of a body is directly proportional to the difference in the temperatures between the body and its surroundings, provided the temperature difference is small an...

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### Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

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Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe using a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the s...

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### Noninverting Amplifier

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A noninverting amplifier is an operational amplifier where the output voltage changes in the same direction as the input voltage. An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-coupled, high-gain electronic ...

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### Nozzle Air Velocity

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The nozzle air velocity describes the speed of air flowing out of a nozzle under pressure. A nozzle is a device designed to control the direction or characteristics of a fluid flow (especially to increase velocity) as...

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### Otto Cycle

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An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark-ignition piston engine.

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### Parallel Axis Theorem

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The parallel axis theorem can be used to determine the mass moment of inertia or the second moment of area of a rigid body about any axis, given the body's moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the object's ...

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### Pendulum Harmonic Oscillator

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A pendulum harmonic oscillator is a pendulum that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement.

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### Pressure of a Column of Fluid

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The pressure of a column of fluid depends on the surface pressure and the depth of the column.

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### Projectile Slant Range

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A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force. The projectile slant range describes the final distance of that projectile under the influence of gravity along a nonhorizontal s...

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### Projectile Path

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A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force. The projectile path describes the trajectory of that projectile under the influence of gravity.

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### Parallel Resistor-Inductor Circuit

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A resistor–inductor circuit is an electric circuit composed of resistors and inductors driven by a voltage or current source. The parallel version places resistor and inductor in parallel.

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### Parallel Resistance

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A circuit composed solely of resistors in parallel is a parallel circuit.

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### Parallel Resistor Capacitor Circuit

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A resistor–inductor circuit is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source. The parallel version places resistor and capacitor in parallel.

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#### PhysicalQuantities:

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### Parallel Resistor-Inductor Capacitor Circuit

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A parallel RLC circuit is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor, connected in parallel.

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#### PhysicalQuantities:

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### Parallel Capacitance

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Parallel capacitance is the capacitance given by two capacitors arranged in parallel.

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### Paschen's Law

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Paschen's law is an equation that gives the breakdown voltage—that is, the voltage necessary to start a discharge or electric arc between two electrodes in a gas as a function of pressure and gap length.

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### Pendulum

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A simple pendulum is an isolated system that assumes a massless, inextensible and taut cord; a point mass weight at the end, with motion occurring only in two dimensions; no friction or air resistance; a uniform gravi...

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### Perfectly Inelastic Collision

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An inelastic collision is a collision in which kinetic energy is not conserved due to the action of internal friction. A perfectly inelastic collision occurs when the maximum amount of kinetic energy of a system is lo...

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### Phase Speed of Water Wave

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The phase speed of a water wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates through the water.

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### Photon Momentum Using Wavenumber

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A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation (such as light) and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force. The momentum of a photon depends on...

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### Photon Energy Using Wavelength

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A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation (such as light) and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force. The energy of a photon depends only...

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### Photon Energy Using Angular Frequency

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A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation (such as light) and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force. The energy of a photon depends only...

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### Photon Momentum Using Wavelength

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A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation (such as light) and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force. The momentum of a photon depends on...

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### Photon Wavenumber Using Wavelength

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A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation (such as light) and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force.

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### Photon Energy Using Frequency

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A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation (such as light) and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force. The energy of a photon depends only...

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### Photon Momentum Using Frequency

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A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation (such as light) and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force. The momentum of a photon depends on...

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### Photon Frequency Using Wavelength

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A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation (such as light) and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force.

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### Planck's Radiation Law Using Frequency

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Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a blackbody in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature.

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### Planck's Radiation Law Using Wavelength

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Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a blackbody in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature.

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### Poiseuille's Law

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Poiseuille's law is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross-section.

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### Poisson Ratio

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Poisson's ratio is the signed ratio of transverse strain to axial strain.

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### Polytropic Process

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A polytropic process is a thermodynamic process that obeys the relation that the pressure times the specific volume to the power of the polytropic index equals a constant.

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### Power Exerted on a Rotating Object

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Torque is a rotational force. Torque acting through a rotational distance over time creates power.

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### Power Factor Using Electric Apparent Power

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The power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit.

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### Power Factor Using Voltage

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The power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit.

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### Pressure Formula

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Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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### Principal Stresses

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At every point in a stressed body, there are at least three planes, called principal planes, with normal vectors, called principal directions, where the corresponding stress vector is perpendicular to the plane, i.e. ...

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### Prism Refraction

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A prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light. At least two of the flat surfaces must have an angle between them, called the apex angle.

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### Proper Velocity

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Proper velocity, also known as celerity, is an alternative to velocity for measuring motion. Whereas velocity relative to an observer is distance per unit time where both distance and time are measured by the observer...

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### Proper Velocity Using Rapidity

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Proper velocity, also known as celerity, is an alternative to velocity for measuring motion. Whereas velocity relative to an observer is distance per unit time where both distance and time are measured by the observer...

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### Rutherford Scattering Differential Cross-Section

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Rutherford scattering is the elastic scattering of charged particles by the Coulomb interaction.

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### Rutherford Scattering Scattering Cross-Section

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Rutherford scattering is the elastic scattering of charged particles by the Coulomb interaction.

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### Rainbow Altitude

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A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets, resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicolored a...

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### Rankine Cycle

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The Rankine cycle is a model that is used to predict the performance of steam turbine systems, though the theoretical principle also applies to reciprocating engines such as steam locomotives. The Rankine cycle is an ...

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### Raoult's Law Using Partial Pressures

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Raoult's law is a law of thermodynamics that states that the partial vapor pressure of each component of an ideal mixture of liquids is equal to the vapor pressure of the pure component multiplied by its mole fraction...

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### Rapidity

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Rapidity is commonly used as a measure for relativistic velocity. Mathematically, rapidity can be defined as the hyperbolic angle that differentiates two frames of reference in relative motion, each frame being associ...

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### Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section for Particles

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Rayleigh scattering is the elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.

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### Rayleigh Criterion Angle for Circular Aperture Diffraction

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The diffraction intensity ratio is the ratio between intensity at a given angle and the incident intensity of light passing through a circular aperture.

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### Rayleigh Flow

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Rayleigh flow refers to frictionless, nonadiabatic flow through a constant area duct where the effect of heat addition or rejection is considered.

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### Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section for Molecules of Gases

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Rayleigh scattering is the elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.

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### RC Circuit

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A resistor–capacitor circuit (RC circuit) is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source. The time required for the voltage to fall by a factor of 1/e is called the R...

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### Rectangular Dielectric Resonant Cavity Using Resistivity

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A microwave cavity or radio frequency (RF) cavity is a special type of resonator consisting of a closed (or largely closed) metal structure that confines electromagnetic fields in the microwave region of the spectrum....

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### Rectangular Resonant Cavity Using Resistivity

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A microwave cavity or radio frequency (RF) cavity is a special type of resonator consisting of a closed (or largely closed) metal structure that confines electromagnetic fields in the microwave region of the spectrum....

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### Rectangular Resonant Cavity Using Conductivity

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A microwave cavity or radio frequency (RF) cavity is a special type of resonator consisting of a closed (or largely closed) metal structure that confines electromagnetic fields in the microwave region of the spectrum....

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### Rectangular Dielectric Resonant Cavity Using Conductivity

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### Redlich–Kwong Equation of State

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The Redlich–Kwong equation of state is an empirical, algebraic equation that relates temperature, pressure and volume of gases.

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### Reduced Mass

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The reduced mass is the \"effective\" inertial mass appearing in the two-body problem of Newtonian mechanics.

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### Reduced and Spectroscopic Wavenumber

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The wavenumber is the spatial frequency of a wave, either in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance.

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### Relativistic Energy for Moving Mass

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The energy–momentum relation is the relativistic equation relating any object's rest (intrinsic) mass, total energy and momentum. From this, the relativistic energy can be calculated.

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### Relativistic de Broglie Wavelength by Momentum

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The de Broglie wavelength is the wavelength associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics accounting for relativistic effects.

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### Relativistic de Broglie Frequency by Momentum

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The de Broglie frequency is the frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics, accounting for relativistic effects.

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### Relativistic Aberration

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Relativistic aberration is the relativistic version of aberration of light for observers who move with velocities close to the speed of light. This causes the rays of light from the source that reach the observer to b...

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### Relativistic Doppler Shift Using Frequency

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The relativistic Doppler effect is the change in frequency of light, caused by the relative motion of the source and the observer (as in the classical Doppler effect), when taking into account effects described by the...

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### Relativistic Doppler Shift Using Wavelength and Observer Speed

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The relativistic Doppler effect is the change in the wavelength of light, caused by the relative motion of the source and the observer (as in the classical Doppler effect) when taking into account effects described by...

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### Relativistic Time Dilation

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Time dilation is the phenomenon of a slowing of time as measured by an observer who is traveling at any nonzero velocity relative to the object.

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### Relativistic Energy for Rest Mass

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The energy–momentum relation is the relativistic equation relating any object's rest (intrinsic) mass, total energy and momentum. From this, the relativistic energy can be calculated.

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### Relativistic Kinetic Energy

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The kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion. It is defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity.

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### Relativistic de Broglie Angular Frequency by Kinetic Energy

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The de Broglie angular frequency is the angular frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics, accounting for relativistic effects.

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### Relativistic de Broglie Frequency by Kinetic Energy

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The de Broglie frequency is the frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics, accounting for relativistic effects.

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### Relativistic Redshift

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Redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum. Relativistic redshift is caused by the relative motion of the source...

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### Relativistic Doppler Shift Using Frequency and Observer Speed

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The relativistic Doppler effect is the change in the frequency of light, caused by the relative motion of the source and the observer (as in the classical Doppler effect) when taking into account effects described by ...

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### Relativistic Doppler Shift Using Wavelength

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The relativistic Doppler effect is the change in wavelength of light, caused by the relative motion of the source and the observer (as in the classical Doppler effect), when taking into account effects described by th...

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### Relativistic de Broglie Wavelength by Kinetic Energy

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The de Broglie wavelength is the wavelength associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics, accounting for relativistic effects.

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### Relativistic Addition of Velocities

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In relativistic physics, a velocity-addition formula is an equation that relates the velocities of objects in different reference frames.

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### Relativistic de Broglie Wavelength by Velocity

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The de Broglie wavelength is the wavelength associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics, accounting for relativistic effects.

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### Relativistic de Broglie Frequency by Velocity

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The de Broglie frequency is the frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics, accounting for relativistic effects.

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### Relativistic de Broglie Angular Frequency by Velocity

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The de Broglie angular frequency is the angular frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics, accounting for relativistic effects.

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### Relativistic Length Contraction

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Length contraction is the phenomenon of a decrease in length of an object as measured by an observer who is traveling at any nonzero velocity relative to the object.

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### Relativistic de Broglie Angular Frequency by Momentum

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The de Broglie angular frequency is the angular frequency associated with a massive particle in motion according to quantum mechanics, accounting for relativistic effects.

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### Relativistic Momentum

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The relativistic momentum is the product of the mass and velocity of an object after a Lorentz transformation.

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### Resistance Formula

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The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

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### Resonance Frequency Equation

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An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit, is an electric circuit consisting of an inductor and a capacitor connected together. The circuit can act as an electrical resonator (an electrical analog of a tuning fork...

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### Rolling Friction Coefficient

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Rolling resistance is the force that resists the rolling of a wheel or other circular object along a surface caused by deformations in the object or surface.

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### Rolling Motion

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Rolling is a type of motion that combines rotation (commonly of an axially symmetric object) and translation of that object with respect to a surface (either one or the other moves), such that, if ideal conditions exi...

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### Rossiter Coefficient and Strouhal Number

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The Rossiter coefficient is related to the Strouhal number, a dimensionless number describing oscillating flow mechanisms. The frequency is the frequency of vortex shedding.

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### Rossiter Coefficient and Frequency

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The Rossiter coefficient is related to the Strouhal number, a dimensionless number describing oscillating flow mechanisms. The frequency is the frequency of vortex shedding.

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### Rotational Kinetic Energy

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Rotational kinetic energy, or angular kinetic energy, is kinetic energy due to the rotation of an object and is part of its total kinetic energy.

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### Rydberg Formula

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The Rydberg formula is used in atomic physics to describe the wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements.

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### Sackur–Tetrode Equation Using Thermal de Broglie Wavelength

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The Sackur–Tetrode equation is an expression for the entropy of a monatomic classical ideal gas, which incorporates quantum considerations that give a more detailed description of its regime of validity.

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### Sackur–Tetrode Equation Using Internal Energy

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The Sackur–Tetrode equation is an expression for the entropy of a monatomic classical ideal gas, which incorporates quantum considerations that give a more detailed description of its regime of validity.

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### Self-Capacitance of a Sphere

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Self-capacitance is the amount of electric charge that must be added to an isolated conductor to raise its electric potential by one unit.

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### Self-Capacitance of Two Identical Spheres in Contact

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Self-capacitance is the amount of electric charge that must be added to an isolated conductor to raise its electric potential by one unit.

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### Self-Capacitance of a Disk

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Self-capacitance is the amount of electric charge that must be added to an isolated conductor to raise its electric potential by one unit.

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### Self-Capacitance of a Solid Cylinder

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### Self-Inductance of a Single-Layer Circular Coil

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The selfinductance of a singlelayer circular coil is a property that describes the electromotive force caused by the change in current in the coil.

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### Self-Inductance of a Single-Layer Circular Coil of Small Radius

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The selfinductance of a singlelayer circular coil of small radius is a property that describes the electromotive force caused by the change in current in the coil.

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### Self-Inductance of a Single-Layer Rectangular Cross-Section Coil

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The selfinductance of a single-layer rectangular cross-section coil is a property that describes the electromotive force caused by the change in current in the coil.

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### Self-Inductance of a Single Core Cable

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The selfinductance of a single core cable is a property that describes the electromotive force caused by the change in current in the cable.

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### Self-Inductance of Two Parallel Wires

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The selfinductance of two parallel wires is a property that describes the electromotive force caused by the change in current in the wires.

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### Series RL Circuit

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A resistor–inductor circuit (RL circuit) is an electric circuit composed of resistors and inductors driven by a voltage or current source. The time required for the voltage to fall by a factor of 1/e is called the RL ...

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### Series RLC Circuit

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An RLC circuit is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor, connected in series or in parallel.

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#### PhysicalQuantities:

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### Series Capacitance

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Series capacitance is the capacitance given by two capacitors arranged in series.

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### Series Resistance

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A circuit composed solely of resistors in series is a series circuit.

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### Single-Slit Diffraction Using Wavenumber and Intensity Ratio

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Singleslit diffraction is when light passes through a narrow slit and creates an interference pattern on the other side.

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### Single-Slit Diffraction Using Wavelength and Rayleigh Criterion Angle

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Singleslit diffraction occurs when light passes through a narrow slit and creates an interference pattern on the other side.

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### Single-Slit Diffraction Using Wavenumber and Rayleigh Criterion Angle

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Singleslit diffraction occurs when light passes through a narrow slit and creates an interference pattern on the other side.

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### Single-Slit Diffraction Using Wavelength and Intensity Ratio

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Singleslit diffraction is when light passes through a narrow slit and creates an interference pattern on the other side.

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### Small-Oscillation Pendulum

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A simple pendulum is an isolated system that assumes a massless, inextensible and taut cord; a point mass weight at the end, with motion occurring only in two dimensions; no friction or air resistance; a uniform gravi...

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### Snell's Law

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Snell's law is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media.

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### Specific Rotation Using Solution

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Specific rotation is a property of a chiral chemical compound. It is defined as the change in orientation of monochromatic plane-polarized light, per unit distance–concentration product, as the light passes through a ...

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### Specific Rotation Using Pure Liquid

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Specific rotation is a property of a chiral chemical compound. It is defined as the change in orientation of monochromatic plane-polarized light, per unit distance–concentration product, as the light passes through a ...

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### Speed by Initial and Final Values

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The speed of an object is the rate of change of its position.

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### Speed of Sound in an Ideal Gas by Pressure

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The speed of sound is the distance traveled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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### Speed of Sound in an Ideal Gas by Temperature and Mass of Molecule

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The speed of sound is the distance traveled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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### Speed of Sound in an Ideal Gas by Temperature and Molar Mass

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The speed of sound is the distance traveled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

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### Speed under Constant Acceleration

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The speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position).

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### Spring Constant for Helical Spring

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The spring constant is the stiffness of a spring—the force needed to stretch it a certian distance.

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### Spring Harmonic Oscillator

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A spring harmonic oscillator is a spring that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement.

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### Static Friction Coefficient Using Critical Sliding Angle

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Static friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid non-moving surfaces in contact.

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### Static Friction Coefficient Using Friction Force

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Static friction is a force that opposes the relative lateral motion of two solid non-moving surfaces in contact.

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### Stefan–Boltzmann Law

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The Stefan–Boltzmann law describes the power radiated from a blackbody in terms of its temperature. Specifically, the Stefan–Boltzmann law states that the total energy radiated per unit surface area of a blackbody acr...

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### Stirling Cycle for a Heat Engine

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The Stirling cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the general class of Stirling devices.

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### Stirling Cycle for a Refrigerator

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The Stirling cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the general class of Stirling devices.

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### Stirling Cycle for a Heat Pump

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The Stirling cycle is a thermodynamic cycle that describes the general class of Stirling devices.

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### Strehl Ratio

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The Strehl ratio is a measure of the quality of optical image formation.

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### Sutherland's Formula

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Sutherland's formula can be used to derive the dynamic viscosity of an ideal gas as a function of the temperature.

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### Synchronous Speed

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An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. A synchronous electric motor is an AC motor distinguished by a rotor spinning with coils passing magnets at the same r...

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### Torricelli's Theorem

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Torricelli's law, also known as Torricelli's theorem, is a theorem in fluid dynamics relating the speed of fluid flowing out of an orifice to the height of fluid above the opening. The law states that the speed of eff...

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### Telescope Light-Gathering Power

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The light-gathering power of an optical telescope, also referred to as light grasp or aperture gain, is the ability of a telescope to collect a lot more light than the human eye.

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### Telescope Magnifying Power

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The magnification through a telescope magnifies a viewing object while limiting the field of view.

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### Thermal Doppler Broadening of Frequency

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Doppler broadening is the broadening of spectral lines due to the Doppler effect, caused by a distribution of thermal velocities of atoms or molecules.

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### Thermal Deformation

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Thermal deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to a change in temperature.

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### Thermal Doppler Broadening of Wavelength

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Doppler broadening is the broadening of spectral lines due to the Doppler effect, caused by a distribution of thermal velocities of atoms or molecules.

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### Thermal de Broglie Wavelength

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The thermal de Broglie wavelength is roughly the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature.

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### Thermal de Broglie Wavelength for Massive Particles

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The thermal de Broglie wavelength is roughly the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature.

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### Thermal de Broglie Wavelength for Massless Particles

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The thermal de Broglie wavelength is roughly the average de Broglie wavelength of the gas particles in an ideal gas at the specified temperature.

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### Thermodynamic Energy

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In thermodynamics, the internal energy of a system is the energy contained within the system, excluding the kinetic energy of motion of the system as a whole and the potential energy of the system as a whole due to ex...

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### Thin Lens Equation

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The thin lens formula relates the distances from the object to the lens and from the lens to the image to the focal length for a lens of negligible thickness in air.

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### Torsion Harmonic Oscillator

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A torsion harmonic oscillator is a twisting system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force proportional to the displacement.

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### Torsion Angle of Twist

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Torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque.

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### Total Internal Reflection

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Total internal reflection is the phenomenon that occurs when a propagated wave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical angle with respect to the normal to the surface.

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### Transformer Universal EMF Using Flux Density

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A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. Electromotive force, also called EMF, is the voltage developed by any source of el...

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### Transformer Universal EMF Using Magnetic Flux

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A transformer is an electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction. Electromotive force, also called EMF, is the voltage developed by any source of el...

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### Two Connected Springs in Parallel

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A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy.

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### Two Connected Springs in Serial

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A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy.

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### Two Infinitely Long Parallel Wires

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Currents passing through two infinitely long parallel wires create a magnetic force between the two.

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### Van der Waals Equation

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The van der Waals equation is a thermodynamic equation of state that is based on the theory that fluids are composed of particles with nonzero volumes, and subject to a (not necessarily pairwise) interparticle attract...

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### Velocity Components

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The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference. Its components are the portions of the velocity in the direction of the coordinate system vectors.

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### Venturi Flow Rate

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The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section (or choke) of a pipe. The Venturi flow rate is the volume flow of the fluid as it passes through that...

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### Viscosity Conversion Formula

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The kinematic viscosity is the ratio of the dynamic viscosity μ to the density of the fluid.

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### Vis-Viva Equation

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The vis-viva equation, also referred to as the orbital-energy-invariance law, is one of the equations that model the motion of orbiting bodies. It is the direct result of the principle of conservation of mechanical en...

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### Weight

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The weight of an object is the force on the object due to gravity.

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### Weight on Other Bodies

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The weight of an object is usually taken to be the force on the object due to the gravity of a body.

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### Work by Gravity

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A force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force. Work transfers energy from one place to another or from one form to another.

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### Water Hammer Pressure with Fast Closure

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Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid, but sometimes also a gas) in motion is forced to stop or change direction suddenly (momentum change). ...

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### Water Hammer Pressure with Slow Closure

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Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas) in motion is forced to stop or change direction suddenly (momentum change). A...

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### Wave Propagation in Strings

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The velocity of propagation of a wave in a string is proportional to the square root of the force of tension of the string, and inversely proportional to the square root of the linear density of the string.

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### Wave Speed Using Period

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The phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space.

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### Wave Speed Using Frequency

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The phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space.

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### Wave Speed Using Angular Frequency

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The phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space.

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### Wien Displacement Law for Peak Frequency

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Wien's displacement law states that the blackbody radiation curve for different temperatures peaks at a wavelength inversely proportional to the temperature. The shift of that peak is a direct consequence of the Planc...

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### Wien Displacement Law for Peak Wavelength

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Wien's displacement law states that the blackbody radiation curve for different temperatures peaks at a wavelength inversely proportional to the temperature. The shift of that peak is a direct consequence of the Planc...

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### Work by Torque

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A force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force. Work transfers energy from one place to another or from one form to another.

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### Work by Force

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A force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force. Work transfers energy from one place to another or from one form to another.

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### Work by Force at an Angle

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### Work by Acceleration and Distance

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### Young's Modulus

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Young's modulus, also known as the elastic modulus, is a measure of the stiffness of a solid material. It is a mechanical property of linear elastic solid materials. It defines the relationship between stress (force p...