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# Mass Density

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### Dean Number

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The Dean number is a dimensionless group in fluid mechanics, which occurs in the study of flow in curved pipes and channels.

### Drag Coefficient

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The drag coefficient is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment, such as air or water.

### Archimedes Number

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The Archimedes number is used to determine the motion of fluids due to density differences. It is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of external forces to internal viscous forces.

### Acceleration Number

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The acceleration number characterizes acceleration flow.

### Accelerating Frequency

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Fluid dynamic accelerating frequency

### Alfvén Number

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The Alfvén number describes the relative scale for phenomena within an Alfvén wave, a type of magnetohydrodynamic wave in which ions oscillate in response to a restoring force provided by an effective tension on the m...

### Archimedes's Principle

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Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

### Atwood Number

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The Atwood number is a dimensionless number in fluid dynamics used in the study of hydrodynamic instabilities in density-stratified flows.

### Bernoulli's Energy Equation

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Bernoulli's energy equation derives from Bernoulli's principle, which states that an increase in the speed of a fluid across a surface will result in a decrease of the force exerted (pressure) on that surface, or a de...

### Bond Number

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The Bond number, or Eötvös number, is a dimensionless number measuring the importance of gravitational forces compared to surface tension forces, and is used to characterize the shape of bubbles or drops moving in a s...

### Boussinesq Approximation Parameter Using Fluid Densities

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The Boussinesq approximation is used in the field of buoyancy-driven flow (also known as natural convection). It ignores density differences except where they appear in terms multiplied by the acceleration due to grav...

### Bagnold Number

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The Bagnold number is the ratio of grain collision stresses to viscous fluid stresses in a granular flow with interstitial Newtonian fluid.

### Barometric Formula for Density

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The barometric formula (also called the exponential atmosphere or isothermal atmosphere) is a formula used to model how the density of the air changes with altitude.

### Blasius Boundary Layer Thickness

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A Blasius boundary layer describes the steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer that forms on a semi-infinite plate, which is held parallel to a constant unidirectional flow.

### Blasius Displacement Thickness

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A Blasius boundary layer describes the steady two-dimensional laminar boundary layer that forms on a semi-infinite plate, which is held parallel to a constant unidirectional flow.

### Blood Glucose Level from Mean Plasma Glucose

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The blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level, is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal.

### Bodenstein Number with Thermal Conductivity

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The Bodenstein number, a dimensionless number that is often used to describe axial mixing in so-called axial-dispersion models for tubular reactors. It represents the ratio between the convective transport to the tran...

### Brownell–Katz Number by Viscosity

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The Brownell–Katz number is a combination of capillary number and Bond number.

### Bulk Concentration

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The bulk concentration describes the ratio of suspended particles to the fluid as a whole.

### Capillary Action

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Capillary action is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow spaces without the assistance of, or even in opposition to, external forces like gravity.

### Cauchy Number

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The Cauchy number is a dimensionless number in continuum mechanics used in the study of compressible flows.

### Centrifugal Pump Power

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Centrifugal pump power describes the power of a certain class of pumps used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow.

### Chandrasekhar Number

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The Chandrasekhar number is a dimensionless quantity used in magnetic convection to represent the ratio of the Lorentz force to the viscosity.

### Concentration of Oxygen in Blood

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Oxygen saturation is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.

### Elliptical Cylinder Mass

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An elliptical cylinder is a cylinder whose cross-section is an ellipse.

### Eötvös Number

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The Eötvös number, also called the Bond number, is a dimensionless number measuring the importance of gravitational forces compared to surface tension forces, and is used (together with the Morton number) to character...

### First Cowling Number

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The Cowling number expresses the magnetic-to-inertia forces ratio.

### First Euler Number Using Friction Force

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The Euler number is a dimensionless number used in fluid flow calculations. It expresses the relationship between a local pressure drop caused by a restriction and the kinetic energy per volume of the flow, and is use...

### First Euler Number Using Pressure Difference

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The Euler number is a dimensionless number used in fluid flow calculations. It expresses the relationship between a local pressure drop caused by a restriction and the kinetic energy per volume of the flow, and is use...

### Fourier Number Using Thermal Conductivity

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The Fourier number is a dimensionless number that characterizes transient heat conduction. Conceptually, it is the ratio of diffusive or conductive transport rate to the quantity storage rate, where the quantity may b...

### Graetz Number

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The Graetz number is a dimensionless number that characterizes laminar flow in a conduit.

### Hydraulic Conductivity

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Hydraulic conductivity is a property of vascular plants, soils and rocks that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore spaces or fractures. It depends on the intrinsic permeability o...

### Hydrostatic Pressure

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Hydrostatic pressure describes the pressure in a fluid at rest, where all frictional and inertial stresses vanish.

### Hartmann Number

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The Hartmann number, related to the Chandrasekhar number, is a dimensionless quantity used in magnetic convection to represent the ratio of the Lorentz force to the viscosity.

### Ideal Gas Law Using Density

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The ideal gas law is the equation of state of a hypothetical ideal gas. An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

### IV Infusion Rate

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Intravenous therapy is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein. The infusion rate is the rate at which a solution is administered to the patient.

### Jeans Length Using Speed of Sound

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The Jeans length is the critical radius for instability of a collapsing thermalized cloud of self­gravitating gas.

### Jeans Length Using Temperature

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The Jeans length is the critical radius for the instability of a collapsing thermalized cloud of self­gravitating gas.

### Jeans Mass Using Temperature

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The Jeans mass is the mass that a spherical cloud of interstellar gas must have in order to contract under its own weight.

### Jeans Mass Using Speed of Sound

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The Jeans mass is the mass that a spherical cloud of interstellar gas must have in order to contract under its own weight.

### Lewis Number Using Thermal Conductivity

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The Lewis number is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of thermal diffusivity to mass diffusivity. It is used to characterize fluid flows where there is simultaneous heat and mass transfer.

### Lift Coefficient

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The lift coefficient is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the fluid density around the body, the fluid velocity and an associated reference area.

### Molarity-to-Density Formula

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Molar concentration, also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration, is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution, or of any chemical species, in terms of the amount of substance ...

### Mass Density

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The mass density of a substance is its mass per unit volume.

### Maximum Stable Sand Castle Height

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A sand castle is a type of sand sculpture resembling a miniature building. Its height depends on a number of factors, such as the shape, size and mixture of the sand grains, the moisture content and the details of the...

### Pressure of a Column of Fluid

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The pressure of a column of fluid depends on the surface pressure and the depth of the column.

### Rutherford Scattering Scattering Cross-Section

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Rutherford scattering is the elastic scattering of charged particles by the Coulomb interaction.

### Rayleigh Number Using Thermal Conductivity

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The Rayleigh number for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy-driven flow, also known as free convection or natural convection.

### Renal Failure Index

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The renal failure index is used to differentiate between renal and pre-renal acute renal failure.

### Reynolds Number Using Dynamic Viscosity

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The Reynolds number is an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.

### Serum Osmolarity

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Serum osmolarity measures the body's electrolyte-water balance.

### Schmidt Number Using Dynamic Viscosity

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The Schmidt number is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of momentum diffusivity (kinematic viscosity) and mass diffusivity, and is used to characterize fluid flows in which there are simultaneous momentum an...

### Second Cowling Number

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The Cowling number expresses the magnetic-to-intertia forces ratio.

### Specific Rotation Using Pure Liquid

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Specific rotation is a property of a chiral chemical compound. It is defined as the change in orientation of monochromatic plane-polarized light, per unit distance–concentration product, as the light passes through a ...

### Speed of Sound in an Ideal Gas by Pressure

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The speed of sound is the distance traveled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium.

### Stanton Number

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The Stanton number is a dimensionless number that measures the ratio of heat transferred into a fluid to the thermal capacity of fluid.

### Suratman Number

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The Suratman number is a dimensionless number used in the characterization of free-surface fluid dynamics. It represents a ratio of surface tension to the momentum transport (especially dissipation) inside a fluid.

### Venturi Flow Rate

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The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid pressure that results when a fluid flows through a constricted section (or choke) of a pipe. The Venturi flow rate is the volume flow of the fluid as it passes through that...

### Viscosity Conversion Formula

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The kinematic viscosity is the ratio of the dynamic viscosity μ to the density of the fluid.

### Water Hammer Pressure with Fast Closure

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Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid, but sometimes also a gas) in motion is forced to stop or change direction suddenly (momentum change). ...

### Weber Number

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The Weber number is a dimensionless number in fluid mechanics that is often useful in analyzing fluid flows where there is an interface between two different fluids, especially for multiphase flows with strongly curve...

### Wind Turbine Power

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A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy.