Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities

(2.3.1) current version: 2.4.1 »

Utilities for testing code equivalence

Contributed by: Richard Hennigan

CodeEquivalenceUtilities is a collection of Wolfram Language functions that can be used to test if different pieces of code are equivalent without the need for evaluation.

This allows comparison of unevaluated expressions that may have non-deterministic outputs (e.g. random values, dates, etc).

This Paclet represents the underlying technology that powers several automated code grading systems, such as the online exercises for EIWL and Wolfram Challenges.

Installation Instructions

To install this paclet in your Wolfram Language environment, evaluate this code:
PacletInstall["Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities"]


To load the code after installation, evaluate this code:
Needs["Wolfram`CodeEquivalenceUtilities`"]

Paclet Guide

Examples

Basic Examples (2) 

Check if two expressions are equivalent:

In[1]:=
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Out[1]=

View the canonical representations of expressions:

In[2]:=
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Out[2]=
In[3]:=
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Out[3]=

These are directly comparable:

In[4]:=
% === %%
Out[4]=

Scope (3) 

Get additional information about the equivalence test:

In[5]:=
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Out[5]=

View the sequence of transformations used to convert an expression to its canonical form:

In[6]:=
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Out[6]=

Convert a canonical representation to a normal expression:

In[7]:=
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Out[7]=
In[8]:=
InterpretationBox[FrameBox[TagBox[TooltipBox[PaneBox[GridBox[List[List[GraphicsBox[List[Thickness[0.0025`], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.9607843137254902`, 0.5058823529411764`, 0.19607843137254902`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]], List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]], List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]], List[List[0, 2, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3]]], List[List[List[205.`, 22.863691329956055`], List[205.`, 212.31669425964355`], List[246.01799774169922`, 235.99870109558105`], List[369.0710144042969`, 307.0436840057373`], List[369.0710144042969`, 117.59068870544434`], List[205.`, 22.863691329956055`]], List[List[30.928985595703125`, 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List[20.928985595703125`, 112.91769218444824`], List[21.882003784179688`, 111.26669120788574`], List[23.428985595703125`, 110.37369346618652`], List[197.5`, 9.87369155883789`], List[198.27300024032593`, 9.426692008972168`], List[199.13700008392334`, 9.203690528869629`], List[200.`, 9.203690528869629`], List[200.86299991607666`, 9.203690528869629`], List[201.72699999809265`, 9.426692008972168`], List[202.5`, 9.87369155883789`], List[376.5710144042969`, 110.37369346618652`], List[378.1179962158203`, 111.26669120788574`], List[379.0710144042969`, 112.91769218444824`], List[379.0710144042969`, 114.70369529724121`], List[379.0710144042969`, 315.7036876678467`], List[379.0710144042969`, 317.4896984100342`], List[378.1179962158203`, 319.1406993865967`], List[376.5710144042969`, 320.03370475769043`]]]]], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.5529411764705883`, 0.6745098039215687`, 0.8117647058823529`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]]], List[List[List[44.92900085449219`, 282.59088134765625`], List[181.00001525878906`, 204.0298843383789`], List[181.00001525878906`, 46.90887451171875`], List[44.92900085449219`, 125.46986389160156`], List[44.92900085449219`, 282.59088134765625`]]]]], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.6627450980392157`, 0.803921568627451`, 0.5686274509803921`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]]], List[List[List[355.0710144042969`, 282.59088134765625`], List[355.0710144042969`, 125.46986389160156`], List[219.`, 46.90887451171875`], List[219.`, 204.0298843383789`], List[355.0710144042969`, 282.59088134765625`]]]]], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.6901960784313725`, 0.5882352941176471`, 0.8117647058823529`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]]], List[List[List[200.`, 394.0606994628906`], List[336.0710144042969`, 315.4997024536133`], List[200.`, 236.93968200683594`], List[63.928985595703125`, 315.4997024536133`], List[200.`, 394.0606994628906`]]]]]], List[Rule[BaselinePosition, Scaled[0.15`]], Rule[ImageSize, 10], Rule[ImageSize, 15]]], StyleBox[RowBox[List["FromCanonicalForm", " "]], Rule[ShowAutoStyles, False], Rule[ShowStringCharacters, False], Rule[FontSize, Times[0.9`, Inherited]], Rule[FontColor, GrayLevel[0.1`]]]]], Rule[GridBoxSpacings, List[Rule["Columns", List[List[0.25`]]]]]], Rule[Alignment, List[Left, Baseline]], Rule[BaselinePosition, Baseline], Rule[FrameMargins, List[List[3, 0], List[0, 0]]], Rule[BaseStyle, List[Rule[LineSpacing, List[0, 0]], Rule[LineBreakWithin, False]]]], RowBox[List["PacletSymbol", "[", RowBox[List["\"Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities\"", ",", "\"Wolfram`CodeEquivalenceUtilities`FromCanonicalForm\""]], "]"]], Rule[TooltipStyle, List[Rule[ShowAutoStyles, True], Rule[ShowStringCharacters, True]]]], Function[Annotation[Slot[1], Style[Defer[PacletSymbol["Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities", "Wolfram`CodeEquivalenceUtilities`FromCanonicalForm"]], Rule[ShowStringCharacters, True]], "Tooltip"]]], Rule[Background, RGBColor[0.968`, 0.976`, 0.984`]], Rule[BaselinePosition, Baseline], Rule[DefaultBaseStyle, List[]], Rule[FrameMargins, List[List[0, 0], List[1, 1]]], Rule[FrameStyle, RGBColor[0.831`, 0.847`, 0.85`]], Rule[RoundingRadius, 4]], PacletSymbol["Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities", "Wolfram`CodeEquivalenceUtilities`FromCanonicalForm"], Rule[Selectable, False], Rule[SelectWithContents, True], Rule[BoxID, "PacletSymbolBox"]][%]
Out[8]=

Evaluate:

In[9]:=
ReleaseHold[%]
Out[9]=

Neat Examples (6) 

Here is a list of expressions, some of which are equivalent to others:

In[10]:=
expressions = {
   HoldForm[Table[i, {i, 5}, {j, i + 2}]],
   HoldForm[Array[Range, 5, 3]],
   HoldForm[Table[ConstantArray[i, i + 2], {i, 5}]],
   HoldForm[First[Rest[Range /@ Range[10]]]],
   HoldForm[Range /@ Range[3, 7]],
   HoldForm[Part[Table[Table[j, {j, i}], {i, 10}], 2]]
   };

Find the sequence of transformations for each expression:

In[11]:=
Short[traces = Most@InterpretationBox[FrameBox[TagBox[TooltipBox[PaneBox[GridBox[List[List[GraphicsBox[List[Thickness[0.0025`], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.9607843137254902`, 0.5058823529411764`, 0.19607843137254902`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]], List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]], List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]], List[List[0, 2, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3]]], List[List[List[205.`, 22.863691329956055`], List[205.`, 212.31669425964355`], List[246.01799774169922`, 235.99870109558105`], List[369.0710144042969`, 307.0436840057373`], List[369.0710144042969`, 117.59068870544434`], List[205.`, 22.863691329956055`]], List[List[30.928985595703125`, 307.0436840057373`], List[153.98200225830078`, 235.99870109558105`], List[195.`, 212.31669425964355`], List[195.`, 22.863691329956055`], List[30.928985595703125`, 117.59068870544434`], List[30.928985595703125`, 307.0436840057373`]], List[List[200.`, 410.42970085144043`], List[364.0710144042969`, 315.7036876678467`], List[241.01799774169922`, 244.65868949890137`], List[200.`, 220.97669792175293`], List[158.98200225830078`, 244.65868949890137`], List[35.928985595703125`, 315.7036876678467`], List[200.`, 410.42970085144043`]], List[List[376.5710144042969`, 320.03370475769043`], List[202.5`, 420.53370475769043`], List[200.95300006866455`, 421.42667961120605`], List[199.04699993133545`, 421.42667961120605`], List[197.5`, 420.53370475769043`], List[23.428985595703125`, 320.03370475769043`], List[21.882003784179688`, 319.1406993865967`], List[20.928985595703125`, 317.4896984100342`], List[20.928985595703125`, 315.7036876678467`], List[20.928985595703125`, 114.70369529724121`], List[20.928985595703125`, 112.91769218444824`], List[21.882003784179688`, 111.26669120788574`], List[23.428985595703125`, 110.37369346618652`], List[197.5`, 9.87369155883789`], List[198.27300024032593`, 9.426692008972168`], List[199.13700008392334`, 9.203690528869629`], List[200.`, 9.203690528869629`], List[200.86299991607666`, 9.203690528869629`], List[201.72699999809265`, 9.426692008972168`], List[202.5`, 9.87369155883789`], List[376.5710144042969`, 110.37369346618652`], List[378.1179962158203`, 111.26669120788574`], List[379.0710144042969`, 112.91769218444824`], List[379.0710144042969`, 114.70369529724121`], List[379.0710144042969`, 315.7036876678467`], List[379.0710144042969`, 317.4896984100342`], List[378.1179962158203`, 319.1406993865967`], List[376.5710144042969`, 320.03370475769043`]]]]], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.5529411764705883`, 0.6745098039215687`, 0.8117647058823529`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]]], List[List[List[44.92900085449219`, 282.59088134765625`], List[181.00001525878906`, 204.0298843383789`], List[181.00001525878906`, 46.90887451171875`], List[44.92900085449219`, 125.46986389160156`], List[44.92900085449219`, 282.59088134765625`]]]]], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.6627450980392157`, 0.803921568627451`, 0.5686274509803921`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]]], List[List[List[355.0710144042969`, 282.59088134765625`], List[355.0710144042969`, 125.46986389160156`], List[219.`, 46.90887451171875`], List[219.`, 204.0298843383789`], List[355.0710144042969`, 282.59088134765625`]]]]], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.6901960784313725`, 0.5882352941176471`, 0.8117647058823529`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]]], List[List[List[200.`, 394.0606994628906`], List[336.0710144042969`, 315.4997024536133`], List[200.`, 236.93968200683594`], List[63.928985595703125`, 315.4997024536133`], List[200.`, 394.0606994628906`]]]]]], List[Rule[BaselinePosition, Scaled[0.15`]], Rule[ImageSize, 10], Rule[ImageSize, 15]]], StyleBox[RowBox[List["ToCanonicalForm", " "]], Rule[ShowAutoStyles, False], Rule[ShowStringCharacters, False], Rule[FontSize, Times[0.9`, Inherited]], Rule[FontColor, GrayLevel[0.1`]]]]], Rule[GridBoxSpacings, List[Rule["Columns", List[List[0.25`]]]]]], Rule[Alignment, List[Left, Baseline]], Rule[BaselinePosition, Baseline], Rule[FrameMargins, List[List[3, 0], List[0, 0]]], Rule[BaseStyle, List[Rule[LineSpacing, List[0, 0]], Rule[LineBreakWithin, False]]]], RowBox[List["PacletSymbol", "[", RowBox[List["\"Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities\"", ",", "\"Wolfram`CodeEquivalenceUtilities`ToCanonicalForm\""]], "]"]], Rule[TooltipStyle, List[Rule[ShowAutoStyles, True], Rule[ShowStringCharacters, True]]]], Function[Annotation[Slot[1], Style[Defer[PacletSymbol["Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities", "Wolfram`CodeEquivalenceUtilities`ToCanonicalForm"]], Rule[ShowStringCharacters, True]], "Tooltip"]]], Rule[Background, RGBColor[0.968`, 0.976`, 0.984`]], Rule[BaselinePosition, Baseline], Rule[DefaultBaseStyle, List[]], Rule[FrameMargins, List[List[0, 0], List[1, 1]]], Rule[FrameStyle, RGBColor[0.831`, 0.847`, 0.85`]], Rule[RoundingRadius, 4]], PacletSymbol["Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities", "Wolfram`CodeEquivalenceUtilities`ToCanonicalForm"], Rule[Selectable, False], Rule[SelectWithContents, True], Rule[BoxID, "PacletSymbolBox"]][#, "Trace" -> True] & /@ expressions]
Out[11]=

Generate a graph for each sequence:

In[12]:=
paths = Graph[DirectedEdge @@@ Partition[#, 2, 1]] & /@ traces
Out[12]=

Combine the graphs:

In[13]:=
graph = Graph[GraphUnion @@ paths, Sequence[
   VertexLabels -> Placed["Name", Tooltip], GraphLayout -> "LayeredDigraphEmbedding"]];

Equivalent expressions converge to the same connected component:

In[14]:=
HighlightGraph[graph, paths]
Out[14]=

Group the expressions into their corresponding equivalence class:

In[15]:=
grouped = GroupBy[expressions, InterpretationBox[FrameBox[TagBox[TooltipBox[PaneBox[GridBox[List[List[GraphicsBox[List[Thickness[0.0025`], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.9607843137254902`, 0.5058823529411764`, 0.19607843137254902`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]], List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]], List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]], List[List[0, 2, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3], List[0, 1, 0], List[1, 3, 3]]], List[List[List[205.`, 22.863691329956055`], List[205.`, 212.31669425964355`], List[246.01799774169922`, 235.99870109558105`], List[369.0710144042969`, 307.0436840057373`], List[369.0710144042969`, 117.59068870544434`], List[205.`, 22.863691329956055`]], List[List[30.928985595703125`, 307.0436840057373`], List[153.98200225830078`, 235.99870109558105`], List[195.`, 212.31669425964355`], List[195.`, 22.863691329956055`], List[30.928985595703125`, 117.59068870544434`], List[30.928985595703125`, 307.0436840057373`]], List[List[200.`, 410.42970085144043`], List[364.0710144042969`, 315.7036876678467`], List[241.01799774169922`, 244.65868949890137`], List[200.`, 220.97669792175293`], List[158.98200225830078`, 244.65868949890137`], List[35.928985595703125`, 315.7036876678467`], List[200.`, 410.42970085144043`]], List[List[376.5710144042969`, 320.03370475769043`], List[202.5`, 420.53370475769043`], List[200.95300006866455`, 421.42667961120605`], List[199.04699993133545`, 421.42667961120605`], List[197.5`, 420.53370475769043`], List[23.428985595703125`, 320.03370475769043`], List[21.882003784179688`, 319.1406993865967`], List[20.928985595703125`, 317.4896984100342`], List[20.928985595703125`, 315.7036876678467`], List[20.928985595703125`, 114.70369529724121`], List[20.928985595703125`, 112.91769218444824`], List[21.882003784179688`, 111.26669120788574`], List[23.428985595703125`, 110.37369346618652`], List[197.5`, 9.87369155883789`], List[198.27300024032593`, 9.426692008972168`], List[199.13700008392334`, 9.203690528869629`], List[200.`, 9.203690528869629`], List[200.86299991607666`, 9.203690528869629`], List[201.72699999809265`, 9.426692008972168`], List[202.5`, 9.87369155883789`], List[376.5710144042969`, 110.37369346618652`], List[378.1179962158203`, 111.26669120788574`], List[379.0710144042969`, 112.91769218444824`], List[379.0710144042969`, 114.70369529724121`], List[379.0710144042969`, 315.7036876678467`], List[379.0710144042969`, 317.4896984100342`], List[378.1179962158203`, 319.1406993865967`], List[376.5710144042969`, 320.03370475769043`]]]]], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.5529411764705883`, 0.6745098039215687`, 0.8117647058823529`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]]], List[List[List[44.92900085449219`, 282.59088134765625`], List[181.00001525878906`, 204.0298843383789`], List[181.00001525878906`, 46.90887451171875`], List[44.92900085449219`, 125.46986389160156`], List[44.92900085449219`, 282.59088134765625`]]]]], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.6627450980392157`, 0.803921568627451`, 0.5686274509803921`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]]], List[List[List[355.0710144042969`, 282.59088134765625`], List[355.0710144042969`, 125.46986389160156`], List[219.`, 46.90887451171875`], List[219.`, 204.0298843383789`], List[355.0710144042969`, 282.59088134765625`]]]]], List[FaceForm[List[RGBColor[0.6901960784313725`, 0.5882352941176471`, 0.8117647058823529`], Opacity[1.`]]], FilledCurveBox[List[List[List[0, 2, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0], List[0, 1, 0]]], List[List[List[200.`, 394.0606994628906`], List[336.0710144042969`, 315.4997024536133`], List[200.`, 236.93968200683594`], List[63.928985595703125`, 315.4997024536133`], List[200.`, 394.0606994628906`]]]]]], List[Rule[BaselinePosition, Scaled[0.15`]], Rule[ImageSize, 10], Rule[ImageSize, 15]]], StyleBox[RowBox[List["ToCanonicalForm", " "]], Rule[ShowAutoStyles, False], Rule[ShowStringCharacters, False], Rule[FontSize, Times[0.9`, Inherited]], Rule[FontColor, GrayLevel[0.1`]]]]], Rule[GridBoxSpacings, List[Rule["Columns", List[List[0.25`]]]]]], Rule[Alignment, List[Left, Baseline]], Rule[BaselinePosition, Baseline], Rule[FrameMargins, List[List[3, 0], List[0, 0]]], Rule[BaseStyle, List[Rule[LineSpacing, List[0, 0]], Rule[LineBreakWithin, False]]]], RowBox[List["PacletSymbol", "[", RowBox[List["\"Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities\"", ",", "\"Wolfram`CodeEquivalenceUtilities`ToCanonicalForm\""]], "]"]], Rule[TooltipStyle, List[Rule[ShowAutoStyles, True], Rule[ShowStringCharacters, True]]]], Function[Annotation[Slot[1], Style[Defer[PacletSymbol["Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities", "Wolfram`CodeEquivalenceUtilities`ToCanonicalForm"]], Rule[ShowStringCharacters, True]], "Tooltip"]]], Rule[Background, RGBColor[0.968`, 0.976`, 0.984`]], Rule[BaselinePosition, Baseline], Rule[DefaultBaseStyle, List[]], Rule[FrameMargins, List[List[0, 0], List[1, 1]]], Rule[FrameStyle, RGBColor[0.831`, 0.847`, 0.85`]], Rule[RoundingRadius, 4]], PacletSymbol["Wolfram/CodeEquivalenceUtilities", "Wolfram`CodeEquivalenceUtilities`ToCanonicalForm"], Rule[Selectable, False], Rule[SelectWithContents, True], Rule[BoxID, "PacletSymbolBox"]]]
Out[15]=
In[16]:=
TableForm[KeyValueMap[Reverse@*List, grouped]]
Out[16]=

Disclosures

Version History

  • 2.4.1 – 07 November 2022
  • 2.4.0 – 04 November 2022
  • 2.3.1 – 01 November 2022
  • 2.2.1 – 27 October 2022
  • 2.2.0 – 06 October 2022
  • 2.1.0 – 23 September 2022
  • 2.0.5 – 24 August 2022
  • 2.0.4 – 22 June 2022
  • 2.0.3 – 09 June 2022
  • 2.0.2 – 20 May 2022
  • 2.0.1 – 19 May 2022
  • 2.0.0 – 19 May 2022
  • 1.5.0 – 21 April 2022
  • 1.4.11 – 21 April 2022
  • 1.3.1 – 01 December 2021

License Information

MIT License

Paclet Source

Source Metadata

See Also